(a) Witnesses.

The arbitrator shall exercise reasonable control over the mode and order of interrogating witnesses and presenting evidence so as to (1) make the interrogation and presentation effective for the ascertainment of the facts, (2) avoid needless consumption of time, and (3) protect witnesses from harassment or undue embarrassment. In the discretion of the arbitrator, a witness may testify by telephone. A witness shall be placed under oath or affirmation by the arbitrator prior to presenting testimony, a violation of which oath shall be deemed a contempt of court in addition to any other penalties that may be provided by law. The arbitrator may question a witness.

(b) Recording.

The hearing may be recorded electronically or otherwise by any party or the arbitrator.

(c) Rules of Evidence, Generally.

The extent to which the Rules of Evidence will be applied shall be determined in the exercise of discretion of the arbitrator. The Rules of Evidence, to the extent determined by the arbitrator to be applicable, should be liberally construed in order to promote justice. The parties should stipulate to the admission of evidence when there is no genuine issue as to its relevance or authenticity.

(d) Certain Documents Presumed Admissible.

The documents listed below, if relevant, are presumed admissible at an arbitration hearing, but only if (1) the party offering the document serves on all parties a notice, accompanied by a copy of the document and the name, address and telephone number of its author or maker, at least 14 days prior to the hearing in accordance with MAR 5.2; and (2) the party offering the document similarly furnishes all other related documents from the same author or maker. This rule does not restrict argument or proof relating to the weight of the evidence admitted, nor does it restrict the arbitrator's authority to determine the weight of the evidence after hearing all of the evidence and the arguments of opposing parties.

The documents presumed admissible under this rule are:

(1) A bill, report, chart, or record of a hospital, doctor, dentist, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, physical therapist, psychologist or other health care provider, on a letterhead or billhead;

(2) A bill for drugs, medical appliances or other related expenses on a letterhead or billhead;

(3) A bill for, or an estimate of, property damage on a letterhead or billhead. In the case of an estimate, the party intending to offer the estimate shall forward with the notice to the adverse party a statement indicating whether or not the property was repaired, and if it was, whether the estimated repairs were made in full or in part, attaching a copy of the receipted bill showing the items of repair and the amount paid;

(4) A police, weather, wage loss, or traffic signal report, or standard United States government life expectancy table to the extent it is admissible under the Rules of Evidence, but without the need for formal proof of authentication or identification;

(5) A photograph, videotape, x-ray, drawing, map, blueprint or similar documentary evidence, to the extent it is admissible under the Rules of Evidence, but without the need for formal proof of authentication or identification;

(6) The written statement of any other witness, including the written report of an expert witness, and including a statement of opinion which the witness would be allowed to express if testifying in person, if it is made by affidavit or by declaration under penalty of perjury;

(7) A document not specifically covered by any of the foregoing provisions but having equivalent circumstantial guaranties of trustworthiness, the admission of which would serve the interests of justice.

(e) Opposing Party May Subpoena Author or Maker as Witness.

Any other party may subpoena the author or maker of a document or videotape admissible under this rule, at that party's expense, and examine the author or maker as if under cross examination.